High risk obstetric care
The term high-risk describes a pregnancy in which the mother or the baby experiences medical complications due to a newly developed or pre-existing disorder. This includes conditions or situations that could threaten the well-being of the mother or child such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problems, a history of miscarriage, symptoms of premature labor or expectation of twins, triplets or more.
As many as 10 percent of pregnancies are considered high risk but, with expert care, 95 percent of these special cases lead to the birth of healthy babies. The obstetricians at Flowrence Hospitals offer specialized care for high-risk expectant mothers and their babies.
Pre-natal testing & diagnostics
Pre-natal tests can help identify health problems that could endanger both a woman and her unborn child. Pre-natal tests are done in the first, second and third trimesters and help a mother determine key factors about her own health that can, in turn, affect the baby’s health, such as blood type, whether she has gestational diabetes, anemia or other health conditions. In a developing child pre-natal tests can identify treatable health problems that can affect the baby’s health, characteristics of the baby, including size, sex, age and placement in the uterus, the chance that a baby has certain birth defects or genetic problems and certain types of fetal abnormalities, like heart problems.
Several non-invasive and invasive techniques are available for pre-natal diagnosis. Each of them can be applied only during specific time periods during the pregnancy for maximum usefulness. The techniques employed for pre-natal diagnosis include:
- Chorionic villus sampling
- Fetal blood cells in maternal blood
- Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein
- Maternal serum beta-HCG
- Maternal serum estriol
Flowrence Hospitals offers several specialized tests to determine any potential problems with the baby’s health or delivery. These include:
- Advanced obstetrical ultrasound
- Fetal heart rate/well-being tests
- Non-stress test measures changes in the heart rate to determine that the baby is getting enough oxygen in the womb
- Biophysical profile – an ultrasound exam that monitors the movement, body tone and breathing efforts of the baby
Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. While the changes may not be cancerous, they could lead to cancer of the cervix if not treated in time.
Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) appear and flourish outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum. The uterine cavity is lined with endometrial cells, which are affected by female hormones. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are also influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way that is similar to the cells inside the uterus. The symptoms of endometriosis are pain and infertility. The pain is often worse during the menstrual cycle and is the most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhoea.
Fibroids are non-cancerous (benign) tumours that grow from the muscle layers of the uterus (womb). They are also known as uterine fibroids, myomas or fibromyomas. Fibroids are growths of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue. Fibroids can vary in size, from that of a bean to as large as a melon.
Gynaecological cancers are cancers of the female reproductive system and occur when abnormal cells grow in an uncontrolled way. Gynaecological cancers are named according to the organ or part of the body where they first develop — the ovary, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
- Ovarian cancer begins in one or both the ovaries, a pair of solid, oval-shaped organs producing hormones and eggs (ova).
- Uterine cancer begins in the main body of the uterus, a hollow organ about the size and shape of an upside-down pear. The uterus is where the baby grows when a woman is pregnant.
- Cervical cancer begins in the cervix, the lower, cylinder-shaped part of the uterus. Its upper margin is connected to the uterus, while its lower margin is connected to the vagina.
- Vaginal cancer begins in the vagina (also called the birth canal), a muscular tube-like channel that extends from the cervix to the external part of the female sex organs (vulva).
- Vulval cancer – the vulva is a woman’s external genitalia and is made up of the skin and fatty tissue that surrounds the clitoris and the openings of the vagina and the urethra. The fatty tissue makes up two folds, called the labia majora and labia minora. Cancer of the vulva occurs most often in or on the labia. Less frequently, it can occur on the clitoris or in glands on the sides of the vaginal opening, called Bartholin’s glands.
Menopause, when it occurs after the age of 40, is considered a normal part of aging. But some women can experience menopause early, either as a result of surgery, such as hysterectomy, or damage to the ovaries, such as from chemotherapy. If menopause occurs before the age of 40, regardless of the cause, it is called premature menopause.
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac which develops in an ovary. Most ovarian cysts are benign (non-cancerous) and cause no symptoms. Some cause problems such as pain and irregular bleeding. No treatment may be needed for certain types of ovarian cysts, which tend to go away on their own. For other types, an operation may be advised to remove the cyst.
Pelvic Floor Disorders
Pelvic floor disorders are problems that affect women’s pelvic organs — the uterus (or womb), vagina, bladder, rectum and the muscles that surround and support them. The three most common problems are pelvic organ prolapse and trouble with bladder or bowel control.
Preventive Health Care
Flowrence Hospitals has special health check-up packages for gynaecology and obstetrics for both prevention and early detection of disorders. The hospital also has special women’s programs to detect early signs of disorders of the breast and the organs of reproduction and care for a woman’s contraceptive requirements. A mammogram, an ultrasound scan and a pap smear test are part of a woman’s general check-up package.
Reasons for male infertility
- Low sperm count
- Sperm absence
- Problem in sperm movement
- Sperm delivery problem
- Diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs etc
- Health problems
- Genetic defects
- Undescended testicles
- Other sexual problems
Reasons for female infertility
- Failure to ovulate
- Poorly functioning fallopian tubes
- Abnormal uterus
- Diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs etc
- Hormonal causes
- Cervical causes
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
- Other causes